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Polarizability depends on the number of electrons and the size of the molecule. The more electrons there are, or the larger the molecule, the more polarizable it is. This is because the electrons are further from the nucleus, and the electron clouds can be distorted more easily. I don't think you can quantify polarizability; usually it is relative to other molecules.
The greater the number of electrons, the less control the nuclear charge has on charge distribution, and thus the increased polarizability of the atom. Basically, polarizability depends on number of electrons and size of the atom or molecule.
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