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I am a little bit confused about what a dipole actually is. When we were talking about interactions in lecture and ion-ion, ion-dipole, and dipole-dipole reactions were brought up how do you determine whether something is a dipole or not?
A molecule has a dipole when it has an area of partial positive and partial negative charge. Polar covalent bonds have dipoles, since one atom pulls on the electrons more and becomes partially negative as a result. Other nonpolar molecules can have induced dipoles, which are very temporary and weak, and which we see in van der waal interactions.
When there is a difference between the electronegativity of two atoms a partial charge forms. The atom with more pulling power has a greater share of electrons so it has a negative partial charge which means it has a negative dipole.
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