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Electronegativity refers to how likely it is for an atom to gain another electron. If an atom has a high electronegativity, it is more likely to pull electrons toward itself, so the more electronegative atom will likely have a partial negative charge.
Dipole moments point toward the more electronegative atom, because their higher electronegativity attracts the other atom's electrons closer toward it. This means that their bond isn't completely covalent. When atoms have a higher difference in electronegativity, the dipole moment is stronger and their bond is more ionic.
FDeCastro_1B wrote:Can someone please explain how electronegativity determines the dipole moments? Which element gets which partial charge?
If Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity are high, then atom will have high Electronegativity and pull shared electrons towards it (resulting in a partial negative charge), these are typically anions
If Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity are low, then atom will have low Electronegativity and shared electrons will be further away (resulting in a partial positive charge), these are typically cations
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