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A dipole moment basically occurs whenever there is a distinction between negative and positive charge. When in a chemical bond atom on one side of the bond has more negative charge than atom on the other side, we can say there's a dipole moment, since there is a separation of the positive and negative charge. Dipole moment is also a measurement of polarity of bonds because it occurs under unequal sharing of electrons.
aphung1G wrote:I'm still not understanding the concept of dipole moment too well. Can someone explain how this applies in lewis structures?
Dipole moments are the result of differences in electronegativities. An atom with a greater electronegativity, such as the Cl atom in HCl. Since the electronegativity of Cl is greater than that of H, the dipole moment is drawn toward Cl, since it pulls the shared electrons towards it.
Also be mindful of the orientation of the molecule when analyzing for dipole-dipole interactions. For instance, a ccl4 molecule has the cl atoms canceling their charges out due to its tetrahedral shape so there is no dipole-dipole interactions.
Dipole moments usually occur when there is an unequal sharing of electrons and there is a positive charge with a negative charge on either end. For instances like this, the positioning of the atoms in the Lewis structure is very important.
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