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A dipole moment is essentially the measurement of charge differences (when the molecule has a dipole). It can be calculated by multiplying the charge (q) times distance between atoms. Dipole moment therefore increases with larger distances and charges.
The two are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Differences in electronegativity/charge can be represented by the calculable value of the dipole moment. When a dipole moment is present, you know electrons are being shared unevenly between the two molecules.
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