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You know a molecule has a dipole moment when there is an unequal sharing of the electron. The dipole moment is larger when the difference in electronegativity is greater. The reason why the arrow points towards the partially charged atom is because that is the direction that the electron is being pulled towards.
To add to that, the arrow always points to the lowercase delta negative sign, and a line strikes through the arrow at the lowercase delta positive sign (making a cross or a "+" to help you remember it)
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