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You can tell if there is an electronegativity difference between the atoms. This electronegativity difference helps you determine whether a bond is polar, and dipole-dipole interactions can only occur between polar molecules. Hope this helps!
You look at an atom's electronegativity. If the difference is in the range between 0.4 and 1.7, then the molecule is considered polar and if a molecule is polar, it is likely caused by a dipole-dipole interaction. Polar molecules contain polar bonds that create dipoles caused by a positive/negative charge difference.
Molecules that are polar contain dipole moments, which means atoms within the molecule have significant differences in electronegativity. If two molecules interacting are both polar, then it is likely that there is a dipole-dipole interaction.
Polar molecules have dipole moments due to the unequal distribution of electrons, so a dipole-dipole interaction consists of attraction between two or more polar molecules. You can usually tell if there is a dipole-dipole interaction if you can identify if the molecules involved are polar (for example, drawing out the Lewis structure and checking for asymmetry). You can also look at the electronegativity differences- if the difference is between 0.4 and 1.7, then it is a polar bond.
First thing you should know is that a dipole-dipole interactions is that they occur between stationary polar molecules. Additionally, it's an interaction between two electron dipoles; like partial charges repel and opposite charge attract. They have a significant effect only when they are very close to one another.
Dipole dipole interaction are between two molecule with oppositely charged ends. You can tell when they are oppositely charged when the atoms in the molecule have different electronegativities. This means that one of the atom in the molecule has a greater tendency to attract electrons, thus even though they are connected by a covalent bond, the electrons tend to be attracted closer to the atom with greater electronegativity. Have two of these types of molecules together, and that's a dipole dipole interaction.
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