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In my notes, I wrote "instantaneous dipoles in two nearby rod-shaped molecules are closer and therefore stronger than those in two nearby spherical molecules." Pentane and 2, 2-Dimethylpropane have the same molecular formula but pentane is rod-shaped. This rod shape is stronger so it's harder to break apart, hence the higher boiling point.
A rod shape is stronger than a spherical shape because a rod shape allows the positive and negative charges on the molecule to be closer together, since pentane is in a rod shape it has a higher melting point than 2-dimethylpropane
Pentane is ultimately able to have more van der waal interactions due to its rod shape creating a stronger "bond" between the two molecules so it takes more heat to break them apart.
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