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The larger the atom, the farther the bond is from the nucleus. This makes the attraction weaker as the inner electrons shield the valence electrons in the bond and they feel less pull to the larger molecules. This causes the bond to be weaker.
A larger bond results in a weaker bond due to the fact that there is more distance the bond is covering. Using coulomb's law, F=(K(q1*q2))/r^2, as distance, r, increases, the force becomes weaker as it is inversely proportional to force.
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