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When you draw the Lewis structures of H2O and CO2 you should see that the O in the H20 has two lone pairs of electrons, which somewhat clump together due to the repulsion of the H atoms. These electrons, in effect, cause the bent shape of the atoms. Meanwhile, the Lewis structure of CO2 shows the C double bonded to each of the Oxygens. Because the electrons are shared evenly and there are no lone pairs, the geometry is linear.
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