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We wouldn't be able to know the exact bond length if it wasn't given to us, but we could give the general answer that atoms that are larger in size (by looking at periodic trends) will also have larger bond length. The bond length is essentially the length of the bond from the nucleus of the atom to the outer shell of the electron. You could also add that as the atomic radii gets larger (size), the bond length gets longer, and therefore it also gets weaker.
In order to determine the exact bond length between atoms, additional information must be given however it is possible to determine the relative lengths by comparing types of bonds. By convention the lesser amount of bonds (single bonds) equates to a longer bond length and the greater amount of bonds (triple bonds) equates to a shorter bond length.
You would need to know the different bond lengths to gauge how long a bond length would be in relation to the given length. In other words, you need to be given at least one bond length in order to give a relative bond length in relation to the given.
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