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You can know bond lengths through dissociation energies. The strength of a bond is measured by its dissociation energy which is the energy required to break the bond. Stronger bonds are shorter bonds and weaker bonds are longer bonds. This is because larger atoms have larger bond lengths (more distance) and thus a weaker bond.
Additionally, as a general rule, triple bonds are going to be the shortest because they are the strongest. Double bonds are the next shortest and strongest, and single bonds are going to be the longest and therefore the weakest.
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