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Double bonds are shorter than single bonds because they have more electrons, so the attraction between the positive nucleus and the negative electrons grow greater. The length between the nucleus and the valence electrons gets shorter as there is more attraction.
Double bond lengths are shorter than single bond lengths because double bonds are stronger, which means the force between the two atoms is going to increase, pulling them closer to each other. It would require more energy to break a double bond for this reason, because the atoms are closer together and held more tightly.
For double bonds, two pairs of electrons are sharing, instead of one pair. Therefore, the bond is stronger, and therefore makes the two atoms closer to each other. Double bonds take more energy to break than single bonds.
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