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When the bond is shorter, the attraction of the electrons to the nucleus becomes stronger. Therefore, a double bond (since it is shorter) will always be stronger than a single bond and a triple bond will always be stronger than a double.
The shorter bonds are double and triple bonds which share more electrons than longer single bonds. The more electrons are shared, the shorter the bonds are because there is more pull from the nuclei on the electrons. The increase number of shared electrons are what make shorter bonds stronger.
The strength of any bond comes from the bonding electrons attraction to the nucleus. It follows that the more attracted the bonding electrons are to the nucleus of the two atoms involved in a bond, then the stronger the bond. Because the bonding electrons of smaller atoms are closer to the nucleus, with less shielding, they are highly attracted to the nucleus which makes the bond stronger.
When the bond length is shorter, as with double and triple bonds, which involve more electrons being shared between atoms, the atoms are closer together, and there is a stronger energy due to the atomic radii in relation to the distance between the nuclei of each atom being shorter, making the pull from the nucleus more significant.
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