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Single bonds are longer because they have the weakest strength. In double and triple bonds, there are more electrons shared between the two atoms which pulls the atoms closer due to the attractive forces between the electrons and protons of the two atoms.
Michael Du 3J wrote:What is the explanation behind why single bonds have longer bond lengths than double and triple bonds?
In single bonds, only 1 pair of electrons are shared, so they have less of a pull on the two nucleus's of the atoms they bond. Therefore, they are longer than double of triple bonds, where more electrons are shared, resulting in a larger negative charge, which pulls the atoms closer together.
To add on, double and triple bonds have shorter bond lengths than single bonds because there are more electrons shared between atoms in a double and triple bond. These additional electrons will have a stronger attraction to the positively charged nucleus, therefore, the distance between the two atoms will be shorter cause the attraction is greater.
Double bonds have a stronger attraction because there are more electrons involved in bonding, therefore they are shorter, and triple bonds involve even more electrons and have an ever greater attraction, and are therefore even shorter
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