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You would know depending on whether it is a single, double, or triple bond. If the types of bonds are the same, then you would know if the bond lengths are shorter or longer based on the periods the atoms are on. Because atomic radii increase from top to bottom on the periodic table, the bond length would also increase the same way. For example, water (H20) has a shorter bond length than hydrogen sulfide (H2S) because sulfur is one period below oxygen, so there are more electrons because another shell is added. As a result, the bond length is longer.
Bond length is determined by the strength of the bond so the stronger the bond, the shorter the length. Single bond is the longest, then double bond and triple bond is the shortest. However, the size of the atom can determine the length of the single bond.
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