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Bond lengths differ from single bonds and other bonds because it depends on the strength of the bond. As you know, a double bond is stronger than a single bond and a triple bond is stronger than a double bond. This means that the attractive forces between a two double bonded elements will be stronger than two single bonded elements (similar for triple and double), which would mean that the atoms/elements would be closer together. Thus, as bond strength increases, bond length decreases since the atoms will be closer together due to increased attractive forces. Hopefully this helps.
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