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In order for a hydrogen bond to form, it must be covalently bonded to Fluorine, Oxygen, or Nitrogen and it must be with a Fluorine, Oxygen, or Nitrogen atom with a lone pair. For example, the hydrogens in H2O interact with the Oxygen in water molecules (which has 2 lone pairs). Also, since Hydrogen only has an s orbital, it can only be on the outside of a molecule (it can only make one bond so it cannot be a central atom).
As stated by others, hydrogen bonding can only occur with N, O, and F. The hydrogen that is going to bond must bond to one of those three atoms AND must already be bonded to either N, O, or F. Also, hydrogen will never be the central atom so you don't have to worry about that coming up:)
Hydrogen bonding only occurs in molecules where hydrogen is covalently bound to either nitrogen, fluorine, or oxygen. This is because these three elements are extremely electronegative and so are very attracted to hydrogen.
Hydrogen bonding occurs when an H atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, N, O, or F. The higher electronegativity of these atoms pulls on Hydrogen's only electron closer to themselves. This causes the more electronegative atoms to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen atoms to have a partial positive charge. These partial charge interact with other molecules experiencing the same phenomenon, causing them to attract the partial positives and negatives, causing the hydrogen bonding.
Hydrogen bonding occurs at very specific locations and many criteria must be present in order for a hydrogen bond to occur. Hydrogen bonds exist with molecules that contain Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine atoms. Additionally, there must be a Hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom, and it must be close to another electronegative atom with an available lone pair.
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