(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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Exceptions to the octet rule can occur after n = 3. This makes sense once you take into account the d orbital meaning that the atom has so much more room for others to bond. There are also exceptions where the central atom is under 8 electrons and I believe Boron is one example of this.
the first element in the periodic table to have an expanded octet is phosphorus. There are definitely others like boron that are satisfied with 6 electrons. Two really good exceptions to the octet to know are phosphorous with 10 and sulfur with 12. Those are ones that come up a lot esp with compounds like SF6 and PCl5.
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