(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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For question 4.1 part b, how come the second model may have lone pairs on the central atom? If there was a lone pairs on the central atom, wouldn't the bonding pairs move away from the lone pair making the angle less than 180 degrees?
There are multiple electron geometries that can produce a linear shape depending on the number of lone pairs a centra atom has. For instance, in the case of a molecule whose central atom has 5 regions of high electron density and and 3 lone pairs it will produce a linear shape. This is the same for a molecule whose central atom has 6 regions of high electron density and 4 lone pairs would also produce a linear shape. In some of these cases, the way the lone pairs maximize the distance between atoms surrounding a central atom is by keeping them at 180 degrees and what also has to be taken into consideration is that the lone pairs need to be separated to a certain extent and the shapes that are produced are what would be considered to have the maximized distance.