(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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In bent molecular geometry, there is a middle element with two other elements at the bottom end making a 120-degree angle. The lone pairs are straight ahead of the middle electron. When there are more than one lone pairs the angle between the two elements decrease making it <109 degrees.
The reason the molecule is bent is because the repulsion between the two bonding pairs is less than it would be between either bonding pair and the lone pair. This causes the molecule to no longer be linear and take on the bent shape.
Commonly, a linear compound consists of 3 atoms that lie at 180 degrees. The compound takes a bent structure when there is a lone pair found on the central atom (usually on top). This creates a repelling force that pushes both the present bonds downwards into a 120 degree angle.
think of the ball and stick module that Dr. Lavelle showed us in class when he asked someone to pull out an atom and make it a lone pair. Since lone pair repulsion is stronger than the repulsion of a bonded pair of electrons, the lone pair pushes the other atoms away from it and causes bond angles to decrease an you get that "bent" shape.
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