(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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I have the sixth edition textbook so I don't think the problem coresponds, but I believe if you are given a molecule, you first would decide the struture - tetrahedral - which would then tell you the angles are 109.5 degrees.
I believe that it has something to do with the shape of the molecule. VSEPR configurations include shapes such as: linear, trigonal, tetrahedral, etc... and since we know that each of the electrons distance themselves equally then we can use this to determine the angle. Ex: 2 molecules would be 180 degrees apart because 360/2. The process goes on to be more computational when computing angles in 3d, but I think the values are always consistent with respect to the orientation.
You would know the bond angles from knowing the shape based on electron repulsion. The number of pairs around the central atom will repel one another creating semi-symmetric bond angles. This is based on the angle that allows the electrons to be as far as possible away from others.
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