(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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I am confused how to differentiate whether a hydrogen bonding or a dipole-dipole bonding would be more likely or when one would occur versus the other since they have similar characteristics. When would a dipole-dipole occur over hydrogen bonds?
It wouldn't really be accurate to say that dipole forces would ever occur over hydrogen bonding, since hydrogen bonding is just a type of strong dipole-dipole interaction which happens when a Hydrogen atom is bonded with a Nitrogen, Oxygen, or Fluorine atom in a molecule, which results in a highly polar bond (and therefore a bigger dipole moment)
As was said above, dipole-dipole interactions are a general term, and hydrogen bonding is a specific term for dipole-dipole interactions that occur when a hydrogen bonded to an O, N, or F atom forms a dipole-dipole interaction with another molecule. So to determine whether or not this specific form of interaction occurs you just need to see if there are hydrogen present that are bonded to an O, N, or F. Note that hydrogen bonding really only applies when hydrogen is bonded to one of these atoms (or other very electronegative atoms) because the dipoles are more significant. If you see a hydrogen bonded to a different atom with a lower electronegativity it might not be considered hydrogen bonding because the dipoles aren't significant enough to create the strong hydrogen bond.
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