(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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BaO is more soluble in water than MgO because its atomic size gives the molecule a more iconic nature and less lattice energy. The MgO molecule has a cation with a smaller radius, indicating that there is strong attraction between the cation and anion in the lattice.
Hi! I found someone who had the same question from several years ago, and I thought this person's answtper explained it pretty clearly: "Ba has a lower electronegativity than Mg does, so the difference in electronegativity would be greater for BaO, meaning it is more ionic, and thus, more polar. Therefore, BaO should be more soluble in water" (Irvin Xu 4I). Hope this helps!
Since water is polar, the more polar molecule will have higher solubility. Polarity is determined by the difference in electronegativity between two atoms. Since Mg and Ba's electronegativity is 1.2 and 0.9 respectively, and O's electronegativity is 3.5, the difference between O and Ba is larger than that between O and Mg. Therefore BaO is more soluble than MgO.
In order to determine which molecule is more soluble in water, we would have to look at the electronegativity of both. Since Mg has an EN of 1.2 and Oxygen has an EN of 3.5, the difference in EN is 3.5-1.2 = 2.3. For BaO, the EN of Ba is 0.9 and for Oxygen it is 3.5. The difference in EN for BaO is 2.6. Since BaO has a higher electronegativity difference than MgO, it is more ionic, which makes it more soluble in water.
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