(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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Polar compounds typically have significant dipole moments and dissolve in the most ubiquitous polar solvent, water. They tend to also have higher melting and boiling points than nonpolar compounds with molecular weights similar to them. Nonpolar compounds lack dipole moments and thus don't dissolve in water. They have lower melting and boiling points than polar compounds with molecular weights similar to them.
Polar compounds are often nonsymmetrical as well. The lack of symmetry is what causes dipole moments. Nonpolar molecules do not have dipole moments because either the bonded atoms do not have a great enough electronegativity difference or the molecule is symmetrical and the dipole moments cancel.
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