(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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In short, the difference is that sigma bonds overlap end-to-end and are the strongest covalent bonds, while pi bonds overlap side-by-side. I believe "component orbital" refers to the orbitals that sort of make up the hybrid orbital. For example, in 2sp, the component orbitals would be 2s, 2p. Not 100% certain though.
Adding on, because sigma bonds overlap end-to-end, they allow bound atoms to rotate, while pi bonds, which overlap side-to-side, do not allow bound atoms to rotate. Sigma bonds are also formed between atoms, while pi bonds are formed above/under/beside sigma bonds.
Pi bonds result because you can't have 2 sigma bonds in a double bond. Sigma bonds are the shortest and connect the two atoms most directly. Any other bond that occurs will have to arch around the existing bond to reach the other atom and thus become a pi bond. Every bond formed after the initial single sigma bond has the potential to be a pi bond but not a sigma bond.
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