(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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Polar bonds have partial charges due to the unequal distribution of charges/electrons whereas nonpolar bonds have an equal distribution. Usually symmetrical molecules are nonpolar because the charges are evenly distributed. All Carbon-Hydrogen bonds are nonpolar.
All homonuclear diatomic molecules are nonpolar because the partial charges are equal and cancel out because the molecule is linear and the charges point in opposite directions. Polar molecules are the opposite (partial charges do not point in opposite directions and therefore do not cancel out).This can be applied to other polyatomic molecules as well. In cis- molecules, the same atoms are on the same side of the central atoms which causes the partial charges to point in diagonal directions. As a result, the cis- molecule is polar. However, in trans- molecules, the same atoms are on different sides of the central atoms which causes the partial charges to point in opposite directions. As a result, trans- molecules are nonpolar.
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