(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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Polarizability is the characteristic of atoms and ions with electron clouds that readily undergo a large distortion. An anion is highly polarizable if it is large because the nucleus exerts weak control over outermost electrons as they are farther. This makes electron clouds easily distorted.
Polarizable refers to atoms or ions with electron clouds experience distortions. Polarizability is usually associated with anions. Large anions are highly polarizable since the nucleus has weaker control over the outermost electrons due to a larger orbital. Ions with a higher negative charge (a higher electron:proton ratio) will have a higher polarizability.