(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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It basically considering how the number of atoms bonded to the central atom will affect it's shape and how the number of electron dense regions (so bonded atom AND lone pairs) affect the bond angles of the initial shape. These two factors ultimately determine the shape of the molecule
With the electron geometry, all you have to consider is the number of things attached to the central atoms (lone pairs, atoms) to determine what the shape/geometry would be. When determining the molecular shape, you build off of this and determine how many of the "attached things" are lone pairs and how many are atoms. You use this information to understand bond angles and eventually the molecular shape.
Electron geometry is in reference to the number of regions of electron density and what that shape entails, while molecular shape takes into account lone pairs and how that effects the shape of the molecule. For example, in cases of AX2E2, the electron geometry is tetrahedral, while the molecular shape is bent/angled.