(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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The example we talked about in class was for the "see-saw," or AX4E. This geometry is the same as trigonal bipyramidal except one of the axial atoms is instead a lone pair. Lone pairs have higher repulsion, so the lowest energy structure is one in which the lone pair is in the place of an axial atom, not an equatorial atom. The closer electrons are together, the less stable the structure. So, putting the lone pair in place of an axial atom is more stable because the nearest regions of electron density are 90 degrees away, and there is only two of them. If it was in an equatorial space, the nearest regions of electron density would also be 90 degrees away, except there are three of them. Having two regions at 90 degrees is more stable than having three, so the lone pair occupies an axial space.
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