(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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there is a pattern in the periodic table, as you go up and right, the electronegativity of the atoms rise. But basically, its the how much an atom attracts electrons. And this electronegativity is determined by looking at its atomic number (nuclear charge) and the amount of valence electrons.
The electronegativity of the molecule is determined by the difference in electronegativity values of the atoms involved. If the difference in electronegativity is great enough (greater than 2), the bond between elements is considered ionic. If the difference is less than 1.5 the molecule is considered to be covalently bonded. However, there are differing levels of ionic character of a bond depending on the difference of electronegativity values of the elements. A polar molecule is one that does not have a great enough difference in electronegativity values to be an ionic compound, but contains bonds between different elements placed in a way that the overall character of the molecule is polar (the bonds between these elements in the molecule would be polar covalent).
Electronegativity for a molecule is determined by the difference between the electronegativity of the different atoms. For example, H has an electronegativity of 2.1 and F has an electronegativity of 4.0, so 4.0 - 2.1 = 1.9. HF, therefore, has an electronegativity of 1.9.
the more electrons in the valence, the smaller the electron, the greater nuclear charge. That means that the atom has a higher electronegativity and will likely attract more electrons to it (or be more likely to accept and electron).
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