(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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The repulsive force between electrons is ranked as, lone-pair-lone-pair>lone-pair-electrons and electrons in a bond>electrons in a bond and electrons in the other bond. Therefore, lone pairs of electrons around the central atoms will be arranged in such a way they are furtherest from each other and therefore reducing the bond angle between two bonds to the central atom.
Because lone pairs repel other lone pairs and bonded electron pairs more strongly than bonded electron pairs repel one another, the repulsion makes the bond angles smaller than they would be if the places the lone pairs occupy were taken up by bonded atoms instead.
Lone pairs on the central atom has higher electron repulsion energy present in comparison to the bonds. Therefore, you will see the bonds being pushed downwards and closer to each other because repulsión created by lone pairs will cause the bond angles to decrease.
Lone pairs on the central atom cause repulsion! This results in the surrounding atoms to be pushed closer together in efforts of getting as far away from these lone pairs as possible. It is more stable for bonds to be closer together than to the lone pair since lone pairs have a higher repulsion. For example, three atoms with no charge or any lone pairs will have a bond angle of 180 degrees. If you add a lone pair to the central atom, the other two atoms will be pushed closer together with a bond angle less than 180. Hope this helps :)
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