(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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I would first draw the lewis structure, identify the vsepr shape to find out if the molecule is symmetrical or not. If it is symmetrical then it is most likely nonpolar since the dipole moments will cancel out. But if it isn’t symmetrical, draw the dipole moment arrows (towards the more electronegative one) and see if the arrows cancel each other out.
Just like how vectors can only cancel out each other when they are opposite to each other, you can draw out the dipole moment in a molecule and see if they cancel, but you must solve this by using the VSEPR model instead of the lewis structure since the VSEPR gives a more accurate 3D shape. A special case is the tetrahedral shape and tetrahedral-shaped molecule is only nonpolar when all atoms bonded to the central atom are the same; you might think their dipole moments are not directly opposite to each other but since there is no preferred site of interaction when there is the same magnitude of dipole moment in every direction, it is considered to be non polar.
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