(Polar molecules, Non-polar molecules, etc.)
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If it does not obey the octet rule, it can have more than 8 electrons on the central atom depending on the element because some transition metals can have up to 18 electrons because of the extra shells that can be filled in the d block so it just really depends on the atom itself.
In our class I think we won't deal with the extremely complicated cases and instead mainly focus on the atoms in the second period of the periodic table instead, and as long as the formal charge agrees with the Lewis structure you come with, that's fine. For example, SF6 and PF5 should intuitively make sense because expanding the octet makes the central atom's charge 0; and that's what we're looking for.
Remember also that not obeying the octet rule does not have to go beyond "8" electrons. Elements like Hydrogen are content with 2 electrons, Lithium with 2, Beryllium with 4, Boron with 6, and so on. The "Octet Rule" really is intending to only apply to four VERY IMPORTANT elements; Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine.
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