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Posted: Tue Nov 01, 2016 11:07 am
Can someone please explain to me the whole concept of hybridization and when molecules get hybridized? Thank you!
Posted: Tue Nov 01, 2016 4:51 pm
Hybridization allows atomic valence orbitals to be combined. Essentially, it is it necessary for bonding because it decreases the number of paired electrons and increases the number of lone electrons needed to form bonds.
For example, take CH4
Normally, C had two, paired electrons in its 2s orbital and 2 electrons in its 2p orbital with each occupying its own.
However, when we combine these orbitals we get:
2s __ + 2p __ __ __ = 2sp^3 __ __ __ __
So now C has four equivalent sp3 orbitals so each of carbon's four valence electrons can occupy its own orbital. Therefore, each of the electrons can form a bond with the electron of another atom allowing carbon to form four bonds with the hydrogen atom.
I hope this helps!
Posted: Tue Nov 01, 2016 5:16 pm
The hybridization number depends on the number of bonds/valence electrons attached to the given atom. You just have to remember that double and triple bonds count as one hybridized bond. So a carbon with 4 single bonds will have a hybridization of sp^3 while a carbon with two single bonds and a double bond will have a hybridization of sp^2.