## Hybridization

$sp, sp^{2}, sp^{3}, dsp^{3}, d^{2}sp^{3}$

Ethan_Kato_1D
Posts: 25
Joined: Fri Jul 15, 2016 3:00 am

### Hybridization

What is the Difference between Hybridized and unhybridized orbitals?

Maggie Bui 1H
Posts: 35
Joined: Fri Jul 22, 2016 3:00 am
Been upvoted: 1 time

### Re: Hybridization

Simply put, hybridized orbitals mesh together different unhybridized orbitals to better account for experimental observations.

For example, the book gives the example of carbon: we know from experience with Lewis structures that carbon usually forms 4 bonds, but according to its electron configuration, it appears as if carbon should really only form 2 bonds (carbon's electron configuration is [He]2s2,2p2 - if its diagram is drawn, it shows that there's two unpaired electrons in the 2p orbitals). However, through the combination of 1 2s orbital and 3 2p orbitals, we obtain 4 hybrid sp3 orbitals, which can accommodate 4 electrons at the same energy level. Using Hund's rule, we distribute the electrons evenly among the sp3 orbitals such that each orbital contains one electron each (4 electrons for 4 orbitals) and can observe that there are four electrons with parallel spin. Therefore, 4 bonds would be ideal for carbon. Hybrid orbitals can better account for this bonding behavior.

Janice Kim 3I
Posts: 33
Joined: Wed Sep 21, 2016 2:56 pm

### Re: Hybridization

Hybridized orbitals allow atoms to have enough orbitals to bond with unpaired electrons. For example, the s and p orbitals will combine to form a new shape that allows the atom to bond with electrons. Carbon only has two unpaired electrons, but with the hybridized orbital sp^3, Carbon is able to have 4 unpaired electrons that will make the atom stable. The unhybridized orbitals allow for double and triple bonding.