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Dipole moments occur in covalent bonds where electrons are not shared equally. The difference in electronegativity creates a charge difference and dipole moments is the measure of this charge difference. A dipole moment is the charge times the distance between the atoms.
Dipole moment occurs when electrons are not shared equally. It is caused by the difference in electronegativity of atoms. A more electronegative atom pulls electrons more, thus having a partial negative charge, causing the other atom to have an equal but partial positive charge.
In the example of water, (H2o) there are two dipole moments, a partial positive with both hydrogen atoms and a partial negative dipole over the Oxygen atom. This configuration overall is considered non-polar even know there is a dipole moment.
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