## Hybrid orbitals and bonds

$sp, sp^{2}, sp^{3}, dsp^{3}, d^{2}sp^{3}$

Christy Lee 2H
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### Hybrid orbitals and bonds

How do hybridized orbitals relate to sigma and pi bonds?

Tiffany Cao 1D
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### Re: Hybrid orbitals and bonds

In hybridized orbitals s and p orbitals combine, or hybridize. When an element makes a single bond, that becomes a sigma bond. Every second or third bond is a pi bond.

Caitlin Mispagel 1D
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### Re: Hybrid orbitals and bonds

Hybridized orbitals use sigma or pi bonds or both in their bonding depending on the molecule. I don't think that you are able to know how many sigma bonds and pi bonds are formed simply from knowing the hybridization. To know the type of bond formed you need more information about the atoms that are forming bonds.

Aijun Zhang 1D
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Joined: Tue Oct 10, 2017 7:13 am

### Re: Hybrid orbitals and bonds

the formation of sigma and pi bonds are due to orbitals interaction. Sigma bonds are formed by two orbitals end to end interact and pi bonds are formed by two p orbitals overlap side by side.
For an atom in a molecule, we can determine the hybridization and number of sigma bonds and pi bonds in it.
For example, CH4. The hybridized s and p orbitals give a hybridization of sp3 orbital for the central C atom. The sp3 orbital and s orbital of hydrogen overlap end to end to form four sigma bonds.
For C2H4, the central carbon atom has a hybridization of sp2. The s orbital hybridizes with 2 p orbitals and leave one 2p orbital unhybridised. The sp2 hybrids between two central carbon atom interact end to end so they form one sigma bond. However, the p orbital with 1 electron on each carbon atom overlap side by side. They form a pi bond, an electron cloud density above and below the axis.