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The book says that whenever an atom in a molecule has a tetrahedral electron arrangement, it is sp3 hybridized. How do lone pairs affect this hybridization? For example would a molecule with the trigonal planar or seesaw shape also be sp3 hybridized?
To my knowledge, having lone pairs does not change the sp3 hybridization as long as the intended shape is still tetrahedral. H2O, for example, is in a bent shape but has the electron pairs needed to attempt a tetrahedral shape, and it is sp3 hybridized.
Lone pairs count as a region of electron density, so for the case of a seesaw structure there would be 5 region of electron density due to the 2 lone pairs and the 3 other bonds. Radicals would also count as a region of electron density!
Bonds, even if they are single/double/triple, will count as one area of electron density. Lone pairs will also count as an area of electron density. So in this case, sp3 means that the atom has 4 areas of electron density.
Lone pairs count as an area of electron density in such way that, when hybrid orbitals are formed, each lone pain occupies one of these new orbitals. In H2O, the lone pairs each occupy one sp3 orbital. The two other sp3 orbitals form covalent bonds with the two hydrogens. This results in four sp3 orbitals for the four regions of electron density.
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