hybridization

$sp, sp^{2}, sp^{3}, dsp^{3}, d^{2}sp^{3}$

Nahelly Alfaro-2C
Posts: 59
Joined: Wed Nov 15, 2017 3:04 am

hybridization

Can someone explain how hybridization works? How can a hybridized molecule be determined and the orbitals assigned to it as well? For example, NH3( ammonia).

Elizabeth Parker 1K
Posts: 33
Joined: Wed Nov 15, 2017 3:00 am

Re: hybridization

Hybridization is the concept that orbitals fuse to make new hybridized orbitals. This table might help. But you can use the VSEPR to get the hybridized formula.
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Chem_Mod
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Re: hybridization

Hybridization is the idea that different orbitals, s, p, or d, will hybridize to all become the same energy in order to allow for more bonding. In the case of ammonia, NH3 N in the ground state has an valence electron configuration of 2s2 2p3. So what will happen is the s and the p orbitals on the nitrogen will hybridize to form 4 sp3 orbitals so that all electrons are the same energy when they bond. If you need to know the hybridization of an atom in a molecule, all you have to do is count the regions of electron bonding on the central atom and the superscripts of the hybridization will add up to that number. So first you need to draw the correct Lewis structure for the molecule, so for ammonia it will have the Lewis structure here
based on the Lewis structure it will have 4 regions of electron bonding, 1 for each of the N-H bonds and then 1 for the lone pair. So the total of the superscripts will be 4, this is sp3 since s has a superscript of 1 and p will be 3, to give a total of 4. The options for hybridization are sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, or sp3d2, which have the total superscripts of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 respectively. So for all molecules with the same total number of regions of electron bonding they will have the same hybridization. So CH4 and H2O will both have sp3 hybridization because they have 4 regions of electron bonding.