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Every bond has a sigma bond. A single bond has one sigma bond. A double bond has one sigma and one pi bond. A triple bond has one sigma and two pi bonds. They are the strongest type of covalent bond. Basically, it is a more specific way to classify bonds and occurs from the overlapping of orbitals.
Sigma bonds are the covalent bonds formed as a result of the head-on overlapping of orbitals while pi bonds are the covalent bonds formed by the side-by-side overlap of orbitals. Sigma bonds are also stronger that pi bonds. Basically, you should know that a single bond has 1 sigma bond, double bond has 1 sigma and 1 pi bond, and triple bond has 1 sigma and 2 pi bonds.
Sigma bond is the end to end overlap. All single bonds are sigma bonds and these bonds can usually rotate. Pi bonds occur when there are more than one bond (double or triple bonds) and these will break if it tried to rotate.
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