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The s and p orbital combined only make up 4 areas of electron density. However, as we've seen a molecule can have more than that. Thus, the d orbital gets involved because it contributes electrons while bonding and can be part of a hybrid orbital.
Consider structures where the central atom has more than four areas of electron density. Looking at VSEPR models, these include octahedral, square pyramid, trigonal bipyramidal, etc. They will need to include d in their hybridization orbitals
If you look at the atoms normal electron configuration, it may be inaccurate to the number of bonds that the atom has in a certain molecule. The hybridized d must be included if a atom has more than 4 bonds (8 electrons), such as those that exceed the octet rule.
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