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It is an experimentally observed way that bonds are formed, for instance in carbon there is 4 bonds made however carbon has 2s^2 and 2p^2 so technically it only has 2 valence electrons in an incomplete shell, so what happens when carbon is entering it's bonding state the 2s electrons diffract and join the 2p orbital as 2 more un paired electrons which allows carbon to make 4 bonds with its 2p^4 orbital but its hybrid state would be written 2sp^3. One sigma and 3 pi bonds.
Hybridization occurs molecules/atoms can bond with other molecules/atoms. To my understanding, looking at the electronic configuration, electrons aren't always in the spot to bond. For instance, carbon's electronic configuration is 1s22s22p2. It only has 2 unpaired electrons even though we know that carbon can form 4 bonds. Hybridization creates the other two unpaired electrons by merging the 2s and 2p orbitals together so that the carbon can bond with other atoms/molecules.
Hybridization allows for the most stable (and most desirable) structure. When there are hybrid orbitals there are enough electrons to complete the necessary bonds - regardless of whether there is a suitable number of valence electrons. Carbon, for example, only has two valence electrons but hybridization allows there to be 4 electron regions for bonding and therefore allows carbon to make its most stable bonds.
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