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Do you remember the box method that was taught in high school? Each box with one electron inside of it opens itself up to bonding. When looking at the boxes, the s has only one box which allows two total electrons, the p has 3 boxes which allows 6 total electrons, the d has 5 boxes which allow for 10 electrons, and the f has 7 boxes which allow for 14 total electrons. The numbers on the top signify when an electron occupies that box, which then makes it capable for bonding. That number on top signifies how many single electrons there are in the p orbital which allow for bonding to a different element.
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