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You count the numbers of bonds and lone pairs (regions of electron density) around the atom and then match this number to the matching hybridization. Sp has 2 regions of electron density, sp2 has 3 regions of electron density, sp4 has 4 regions of electron density, etc.
Draw the lewis structure and determine the number of electron domains there are around the central atom (lone pairs + bonding pairs). Then correlate the number of electron domains to the appropriate hybridization scheme (sp: 2 electron domains, sp2: 3 electron domains, sp3: 4 electron domains, sp3d: 5 electron domains, sp3d2: 6 electron domains). For example, if a molecule has an sp3 hybridization, then it has a combination of 1 s-orbital and 3 p-orbitals.
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