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Posted: Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:38 pm
State the relative orientations of each of the following hybrid
orbitals: (a) sp3; (b) sp; (c) sp3d2; (d) sp2.
Posted: Sun Dec 01, 2019 10:44 pm
Consider the number of atomic and hybrid orbitals involved in each of these
When there are 2 atomic/hybrid orbitals and the hybridization of the central atom is sp, the electron arrangement is linear.
When there are 3 atomic/hybrid orbitals and the hybridization of the central atom is sp2, the e- arrangement is trigonal planar
Likewise, 4 atomic/hybrid orbitals + sp3 --> tetrahedral, 5 atomic/hybrid orbitals + sp3d --> trigonal bipyramidal, 6 atomic/hybrid orbitals + sp3d2 --> octahedral
For example, (a) sp3 will have orbitals oriented towards corners of a tetrahedron (109.5 degrees apart)
Posted: Tue Dec 03, 2019 8:58 pm
I like to think of it in terms of VSEPR - 2 bonds/electron pairs = linear, so sp hybridization; 3 bonds/EP = trigonal planar, so sp2 hybridization, and so forth. The hybridization level is equal to the number of bonds/EP.