## Hybridization

$sp, sp^{2}, sp^{3}, dsp^{3}, d^{2}sp^{3}$

MinjooPark_3I
Posts: 102
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:33 pm

### Hybridization

Hi. So I'm a little confused about the concept of hybridization. I understand that we're combining the 2s^2 and the 2p^2(in the example from the lecture), but why does only one electron from the s orbital go to the p orbital? Or am I not understanding it? Sorry I was kinda out of it today and couldn't really focus on the lecture. Thank you for any help!

Sharon Kim 2A
Posts: 88
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:42 pm

### Re: Hybridization

I didn't see one electron from the s orbital go to the p orbital. In the lecture he included all the 4 valence electrons of carbon. He combined the one s orbital and the 3 p orbitals to make 4 atomic orbitals. In the 4 atomic orbitals, he fit all the 4 valence electrons in each orbital. All of this is done in the 2nd shell which gave 2sp^3. Then it overlapped with the 1s coming from the hydrogen. Hope this helps!

Yichen Fan 3A
Posts: 87
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:59 pm

### Re: Hybridization

Like Dr. Lavelle mentioned at the very end of the lecture, we find out the shape of the molecule through VSEPR model first and then use hybridization to explain the bond in that shape. In this case for carbon, we found that there needs to be 4 sigma bonds distributed all equally around carbon so we then hybridize one 2s orbital and three 2p orbital into four identical 2sp^3 orbitals. After that, we imagine the electrons assign themselves into those 4 orbitals according to Hund's rule.

There isn't really a certain location that each electron is assigned, nor the electron configuration model is actually how the electrons exists in reality. We simply find the model that best explains the experimental results. And since hybridizing orbital best matches the result we observed, we then abandon the 2s and 2p orbital model and create a new the model that is 2sp^3 hybridization.

Yeprem
Posts: 77
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:40 pm

### Re: Hybridization

Can hybridization only occur in the same shell number? Basically, can there be a hybrid between 4s and 3d orbitals for example?

Jiapeng Han 1C
Posts: 85
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:50 pm

### Re: Hybridization

Actually we combine 1 s orbital and 3 p orbitals to form 4 sp3 orbitals. Both of the electrons in the s orbitals are now in the sp3 orbitals.

Isabelle Hales 1J
Posts: 85
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:41 pm
Been upvoted: 1 time

### Re: Hybridization

Do the electrons in hybrid orbitals have different properties/characteristics compared to electrons in their normal orbitals? Will hybridized electrons behave differently? Also, does hybridization and the mixing of orbitals affect the shape of an atom or molecule?

Yichen Fan 3A
Posts: 87
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:59 pm

### Re: Hybridization

Isabelle Hales 3L wrote:Do the electrons in hybrid orbitals have different properties/characteristics compared to electrons in their normal orbitals? Will hybridized electrons behave differently? Also, does hybridization and the mixing of orbitals affect the shape of an atom or molecule?

Electrons are electrons and they don't change base on what model we use to describe them. For the third question, we determine the shape of a molecule first using VSEPR model and then use proper hybridization to explain that shape.

Yeprem
Posts: 77
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:40 pm

### Re: Hybridization

Are the electrons in the unhybridized p orbitals the ones that make up the pi-bonds?