## hybridization

$sp, sp^{2}, sp^{3}, dsp^{3}, d^{2}sp^{3}$

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Natallie K 3B
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Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:51 pm

### hybridization

I am still confused on how hybridization works. For instance, when would there be a sp3d orbital or an sp2 orbital?

Stuti Pradhan 2J
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Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:32 pm
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### Re: hybridization

Hybridization occurs to create hybrid orbitals that can better accommodate the pairing of electrons. The numbers of regions of electron density can tell you the hybridization. For example, a molecule with only 2 regions of electron density would have an sp hybridization because it would only involve the 1 s and 1 or the p orbitals. A molecule with 3 regions of electron density would have an sp2 hybridization, a molecule with 4 regions of electron density would have an sp3 hybridization, a molecule with 5 regions of electron density would have an sp3d hybridization, and a molecule with 6 regions of electron density would have an sp3d2 hybridization.

Hope this helps!

Sarah Huang 3A
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Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:48 pm
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### Re: hybridization

Natallie K 3B wrote:I am still confused on how hybridization works. For instance, when would there be a sp3d orbital or an sp2 orbital?

Hi Natalie! I know that hybridization seems very confusing, and it was for me at first!

You would know when there is a sp3d orbital when there are a total of five bonds attached to the central element (and triple and double bonds still count as 1 bond, just like a single bond counts for one bond), because the s orbital only has 1 orbital, p3 shows that there are 3 orbitals from p involved, and d shows that there is 1 orbital from the d orbital involved. so if you add them all (1+3+1), you would get 5, which correlates with the number of bonds for the steric number!

So in order to find the orbitals, you would need to count the number of bonds, and lone pairs count towards the steric number as well. So if you have a total of 3 bonds and 2 lone pairs, your steric number would still be 5!

If you are wondering what a steric number is, it is the number of atoms that are bonded to the central atom, along with the number of lone pairs that are attached to the central atom

So for an sp2 orbital, you would need a steric number of three, so a total of three "things" attached to the central atom. I really hope that helps!

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