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An anti-bonding orbital is a type of molecular orbital. When the anti-bonding orbital is filled with electrons, the bond between the two atoms is weaker. This relates to molecular orbital theory because it helps us determine the strength between bonds (on a more specific level) as opposed to just based on single, double, and triple.
In molecular orbital theory, bond order is also defined as the difference, divided by two, between the number of bonding and antibonding electrons; this often, but not always, yields the same result. Bond order is also an index of bond strength, and it is used extensively in valence bond theory.
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