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The significance of the bonds being as far as apart from each other is to explain that the molecule is most stable when electrons are far away from each other as possible and this is because their negative charges repel each other.
electron repulsion affects the overall shape of the molecule because it determines how far the bonds around the central atom are from each other. Lone pairs of electrons have stronger repulsion strength than bonding pairs .
I am not exactly sure how the repulsion would impact the bond length, for general understanding though the electrons are negatively charged therefore need to be as far away from each other and if it is a lone pair they have a stronger repulsion changing the shape of the molecule.
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